Today’s post is written by David Langbart, an Archivist in the Textual Records Division at the National Archives at College Park.
An earlier post discussed President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s decision to request the formal resignation of all chiefs of U.S. diplomatic missions overseas (ambassadors and ministers), both career and non-career, after the election of 1940 and what led to that action. A similar directive went out after the election of 1944.
On November 10, three days after the election, Under Secretary of State Edward Stettinius, referring to the 1940 telegram, asked President Roosevelt if he wanted to follow the same practice. FDR “said he thought it would be wise.” As a result, the Department of State sent the following telegram:
A review of diplomatic representation to the countries with which the United States had diplomatic relations in 1944 reveals the following personnel changes in the period November 1944 through March 1945:
|Afghanistan||February 1945. Ely E. Palmer appointed minister to replace Cornelius Van H. Engert.|
|Brazil||January 1945. Adolph A. Berle, Jr. appointed ambassador to replace Jefferson Caffery.|
|China||November 1944. Patrick J. Hurley appointed ambassador to replace Clarence E. Gauss.|
|Costa Rica||December 1944. Hallett Johnson appointed ambassador to replace Fay A. Des Portes.|
|Dominican Republic||February 1945. Joseph F. McGurk appointed ambassador to replace Ellis O. Briggs.|
|El Salvador||No change.|
|Ethiopia||February 1945. Felix Cole appointed minister to replace John K. Caldwell.|
|France||November 1944. Jefferson Caffery appointed ambassador.|
|Guatemala||February 1945. Edwin J. Kyle appointed ambassador to replace Boaz Long.|
|Iran||February 1945. Wallace Murray appointed ambassador to replace Leland B. Morris.|
|Italy||December 1944. Alexander C. Kirk appointed ambassador.|
|New Zealand||No change.|
|Panama||February 1945. R. Henry Norweb appointed ambassador to replace Avra M. Warren.|
|Portugal||February 1945. Herman Baruch appointed ambassador to replace R. Henry Norweb.|
|Saudi Arabia||No change.|
|South Africa||No change.|
|Spain||December 1944. Norman Armour appointed ambassador to replace Carlton J. H. Hayes.|
|Turkey||January 1945. Edwin C. Wilson appointed ambassador to replace Laurence Steinhardt.|
|Union of Soviet Socialist Republics||No change.|
|United Kingdom||No change.|
Information about diplomatic representation is derived from the publication PRINCIPAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE AND UNITED STATES CHIEFS OF MISSION, 1778-1990 (USGPO, 1991) prepared by the Office of the Historian in the Department of State. Up-to-date information on chiefs of mission can be found on the website of the Office of the Historian.
 Under Secretary of State Edward Stettinius to Assistant Secretary of State G. Howland Shaw, November 11, 1944 and Circular Telegram to All Chiefs of Mission, November 14, 1944, file 121.4/11-1944, 1945-49 Central Decimal File, RG 59: General Records of the Department of State, National Archives.
 Engert did not leave post until August 1945 and Palmer did not present his credentials until December 1945.
 Caffery left post on September 17, 1944.
 Gauss left post on November 14, 1944.
 Des Portes left post on September 11, 1944.
 Briggs left post on January 14, 1945.
 Caldwell did not leave post until August 1945 and Cole did not present his credentials until October 1945.
 France severed diplomatic relations with the U.S. on November 8, 1942, and Caffery was the first ambassador appointed upon resumption of diplomatic relations with that country.
 Italy declared war on the U.S. on December 11, 1941, and Kirk was the first ambassador appointed upon resumption of diplomatic relations with that country.
 Ambassador James B. Stewart left post on January 5, 1945, but a new ambassador was not appointed until April 1945.
 Norweb did not serve at this post under this appointment and in August 1945, Frank T. Hines was appointed as ambassador.