So, what did the U.S. Army do with the Prussian Regimental Flags found at Bernterode?

Today’s post is written by Dr. Greg Bradsher, Senior Archivist at the National Archives at College Park

During 2013 I published in Prologue an article about the disposition of the caskets of Field Marshal and Weimar President Paul von Hindenburg and of his wife, Frederick the Great, and Frederich Wilhelm I, that had been recovered in April 1945 by the Monuments Men at a salt mine at Bernterode. While I explained the fate of the caskets and cultural property recovered at Bernterode, I made only a few references to the over 200 Prussian regimental flags found in the mine. I did not explain what ultimately became of them. Over the past years, on several occasions, I have been asked the question, what did the U.S. Army do with the Prussian regimental flags found at Bernterode? This post answers that question.

During March 1945, the German Army placed the caskets of the four notables in the mine at Bernterode, in the northern reaches of the Thuringian Forest, about 18 miles southwest of Nordhausen. Regimental flags were hung above the coffins, and others were placed in a room hanging unfurled from specially built racks. Still others were stacked beside the casket of Frederick the Great. There were over 200 German regimental flags in all, some painted and some embroidered, dating from the early Prussian wars and including many of the WWI-era. Many of the older ones were torn and mounted upon netting. The entrances of the cache holding the caskets, flags, art works, and other items, were sealed with brick and mortar on April 2. The items were not concealed for long. By the end of April the mine treasure would be in American hands and not long afterwards the caskets, paintings, and flags would be stored in Marburg, awaiting political decisions as to what to do with them.[1]

Captured German Flags

From May 4 to May 7, the contents of the mine were packed and hoisted from the mine. On May 8, they were loaded on seven 2-and-half ton trucks and the next day a convoy took the contents of the mine to Marburg, some 100 miles to the southwest. The four caskets were deposited in a room on the ground floor of Schloss [Castle] Marburg. All the other objects were delivered to the Jubiläumsbau (the Marburg museum). In his report on the recovery, transport, and storage of the contents of the mine, Capt. Walker Hancock, the Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives (MFA&A) specialist officer with the First U.S. Army and director of the Marburg Central Collecting Point, suggested the removal from Germany of the flags found in the mine might be considered. [2]

While most of Hancock’s time during the summer was taken up with getting the collecting point up and running in the Staatsarchiv (State Archives building), as well as overseeing the constant arrival of cultural property to the collecting point, Hancock found time for the Bernterode treasure. On August 18, he had the 225 regimental flags, then stored in the Jubiläumsbau with the recovered works of art, removed to the Castle, where they were stored in the room with the caskets.[3]

On August 30, the Civil Affairs Detachment G-39 at Marburg wrote Seventh U.S. Army about the items brought from the mine at Bernterode. This communication was sent through channels and on September 15, Headquarters, Military Government, Land Hessen-Nassau recommended to the Seventh U.S. Army that the regimental flags be transported to the United States, either as trophies of war or held in custody for future disposition. Further, “Because of their propaganda value as symbols of the military tradition, it is recommended that they should not be permitted to remain in Germany. The caskets can be stored indefinitely in their present location.” The Seventh U.S. Army on September 27, forwarded the basic document and the Military Government recommendations to the Commanding General, U.S. Forces, European Theater (USFET). It in turn on October 18, sent the basic document and related correspondence to Office of Military Government, U.S. (OMGUS) requesting instructions as to appropriate disposition of the caskets and flags.[4]

In the latter part of October there was some consideration of moving the flags stored in Schloss to the collecting point. But it was decided, that since they were trophies of war, they would be kept separate from the art in the collecting point.[5]

OMGUS on November 7 responded to USFET’s October 18 communication that instructions of the Department of State as to disposition of the caskets had been requested by cable and that USFET would be informed when a reply was received. It is recommended that the flags be shipped to the United States Military Academy (USMA), West Point, NY, as trophies of war.[6]

On December 8, USFET, acting on the OMGUS November 7 recommendation, instructed MFA&A Section of the Office of Military Government for the Western Military District to pack and ship direct the to USMA “the 225 mil[itary] standards captured in the Bernterode Mine by the 1st US Army and now located in the Marburg art collecting point.” On December 12, Capt. James Rorimer MFA&A Officer, Seventh U.S. Army, while visiting the Marburg Central Collecting Point presented it with a cable from USFET ordering the packing and transport of the regimental flags to West Point. Two days later the regimental flags were moved from Schloss Marburg to the Staatsarchiv in preparation for their transportation to West Point.[7]

Colonel Allen, the Chief of the Restitution Branch wrote the Deputy Military Governor, Lt. Gen. Lucius Clay, on December 13, that because the exhibition of the flags in Germany was inconsistent with the program for demilitarization, they were being shipped as “trophies of war” to the USMA. He added that “in view of the nature of these items as captured enemy standards, is it desired that there be any special ceremony at time of shipment or delivery?” Clay informed Allen that he might write a letter from him to the Superintendent, Maj. Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor, “telling him they are coming – ending something like: It is particularly fitting that these colors which may not be permitted to remain in a country in which a militant spirit has led always to aggressive war will rest in a military institution which has always instilled in its student body a high standard of military conduct and, at the same time, a deep faith in democratic ideals.” [8]

Early on December 17, Capt. Mary Regan, MFA&A Section, Restitution Branch, Economics Division, OMGUS, telephoned the Marburg Central Collecting Point requesting information as to the countries of origin of the battle flags to be sent to West Point. She was informed a report would be made to her.  Later that morning, Rorimer telephoned the collecting point regarding preparations being made for the shipment of the flags to West Point after January 1. At some point that day there was a change of heart regarding the disposition of the flags. The Chiefs of the MFA&A Sections at OMGUS, Seventh Army, and the Marburg Central Collecting Point were instructed by telephone to postpone shipment of the packed flags to the United States until further authorization was received by them from OMGUS. The Chief of the Restitution Branch, the next day wrote the OMGUS Chief of Staff that he be advised if it was desired to release the shipment. In his communication Colonel Allen noted that the flags appeared from reports received to be all of German origin and that the MFA&A Officer at the Marburg Central Collecting Point was attempting to obtain from scholars a list of exact descriptions of each banner, in the hope that the flags would not have to be unpacked and then repacked before shipment. The Chief of Staff responded on December 20, suggesting to Allen that he secure a more detailed list and description of the flags. He also indicated that based on that information a suitable disposition of the flags could be made. He stated it was doubtful whether all of the flags should be sent to West Point; it might be desirable to give some to French or other Allies, and some, possibly a large part, should be destroyed. He indicated that once it was determined which flags would be suitable for shipment to West Point then a cable should be dispatched to West Point asking whether the flags were desired there. Finally General Milburn asked for a report after the above actions were taken.[9]

In the days leading up to Christmas, Capt. Regan telephoned the collecting point requesting that identification of the flags in the Staatsarchiv be made before any disposition of them occurred. She informed it that final disposition had not yet been planned at Berlin and the shipment to West Point would be delayed until this was accomplished. On December 22, the Acting Chief of the MFA&A Section, Restitution Branch, Economics Division, OMGUS wrote the Chief of the Restitution Branch that the MFA&A Officer at the Marburg Collecting Point had been notified that the flags needed to be unpacked and a detailed list and description of the flags needed to be made; recommendations were requested for the disposition of flags in accordance with instructions that “some, possibly a large part, should be destroyed, that some could be given to the French or other Allies, and that some might be suitable for shipment to West Point.” Capt. Grier added that when a list of suitable flags for shipment to West Point was completed, a cable would be dispatched there asking if the flags were desired. Meanwhile, a search for a qualified person to catalogue the flags resulted in Ludwig Scharf of Goettingen, formerly of The Zeughaus (a military museum in Berlin), coming to Marburg on December 28, to help identify the flags. According to Scharf the regimental and battalion flags were all of German origin, the majority of which were from the 19th and 20th centuries. On January 2 Lieutenant Keck telephoned Regan of Scharf’s findings. She requested a written report with recommendations on their disposal. The next day, January 3, the collecting point drew up a complete list of the flags and this list and the recommendation was sent to OMGUS. The recommendation was that in view of the artistic and historic significance of the flags, they be preserved and held in custody until such time as their return to the German Government was deemed advisable.[10]   

Towards the end of January, the Office of Military Government for Greater Hesse (OMGGH) sent to the MFA&A Section, Restitution Branch, Economics Division of OMGUS an inventory of the flags and indicated that it did not concur in the January 4 recommendation made by the Office of Military Government for Landkreis-Stadtkreis Marburg that the flags be held in custody for future return to the German government. OMGGH added, “It is, however, quite impossible to make a specific recommendation for the disposition of each banner” and suggested that disposition of the entire collection be established as a matter of policy.[11]

Upon receiving notice of the intended departure from Schloss Marburg of the joint British-American team exploiting German Foreign Office records there and the consequent removal of the guard therefrom, the four caskets, flags and other articles, on February 8, were brought to the Marburg Central Collecting Point at the Staatsarchiv building so that they could remain under twenty-four hours U.S. military guard.[12]

The Director of the Economics Division on February 25, responded to the Chief of Staff’s note of December 20, regarding the regimental flags. He reported a detailed list and description of the flags had been obtained (a copy of which he was forwarding) and that German consultants to MFA&A Section, had recommended that the flags be preserved, especially fourteen century ones, because of their historical interest and their artistic value. General Draper also reported that a cable had been dispatched to the Superintendent, United States Military Academy, West Point regarding the flags and that a final report would be submitted when an answer to the cable had been received from West Point.[13] Actually, at this point, only a draft cable had been sent by the Economics Division to OMGUS to review and send, but the cable itself had not been sent.

On March 2, a cable prepared by Col. Allen, Chief, Restitution Branch, OMGUS Economics Division, and signed by General Clay, was sent to the Superintendent, United States Military Academy, West Point indicating that “194 banners and 4 lances of German regiments, largely dating from the 19th and 20th centuries,” had been found at the salt mine of Bernterode and were currently packed and stored at the Marburg Central Collecting Point. The cable noted that 14 banners from the 18th century and 4 lances had been selected as especially worthy of preservation because of historical and artistic value. Clay informed the Superintendent that the OMGUS Armed Forces Division recommended that the banners be shipped to West Point and thus he requested to know whether or not the Military Academy desired any or all of the flags. If West Point wanted some of the flags, Clay indicated that a complete list with the fourteen selected flags indicated would be forwarded for further consideration and final decision. Five days later, the Military Academy Superintendent cabled the OMGUS Economics Division that due to the lack of space to display the flags the offer was declined.[14]

At the end of March, OMGGH reminded OMGUS that it had 225 military flags, and prior to the return of the contents of the Marburg installation to the custody of German authorities in the succeeding months, and requested OMGUS make a decision regarding their disposition. OMGUS responded in early April that no decision had been made and that OMGGH would be notified as soon as possible when a decision was reached, and before the collecting point was given back to German custody. It was asked, pending a decision, to retain the flags at the Marburg Central Collecting Point.[15]

Meanwhile, during May the Marburg Central Collecting Point sent two shipments to the Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point consisting of material from public collections of the Berlin area. These included the flags, libraries, paintings, and furniture that had been recovered at Bernterode.[16]

For over the next two years the flags remained at Wiesbaden and no efforts made for their disposition. Finally in early October 1948, the Acting Director of the Office of Military Government for Hesse, Francis E. Sheehan, wrote the Commanding General, OMGUS, that in connection with the recent transfer to baileeship of the Hessian Minister President of cultural properties belonging to the various museums of the former Prussian State in Berlin and held prior to the transfer in custody of the MFA&A Section of his headquarters in the Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point, one group of materials had been temporarily withheld. This group, he wrote, consisted of nearly 200 regimental flags which were found in the Bernterode mine and were successively deposited in the Marburg and the Wiesbaden Collecting Points. The flags, he wrote, ranged in date from the mid-eighteenth century to World War I, and all were of historic interest and some of artistic value as well. He pointed out that they were the property of the Zeughaus Museum (former Prussian State War Museum) in Berlin, “although it is understood that some of them were formerly displayed over the tombs of Frederick the Great and Frederich Wilhelm I in the Garrison Church at Potsdam.” Sheehan noted that the only previous discussion on their disposition occurred in 1945, when the flags were offered through USFET and OMGUS to the War Department or to West Point, and that those offers were declined in a cable of September 29, 1945 “on the proper ground that the standards were in no sense battle trophies.” It was at that time ordered that the standards be held in “‘safe custody’” pending ultimate decision. Sheehan wrote that no specific mention was made of the flags in recent directives from OMGUS to OMGH on the general transfer of custody of former Prussian State museum properties from OMGH to baileeship of the Hessian Minister President. He observed that it was the opinion of the OMGH Property Division that the flags provide “a serious potential form of German militaristic sentiments and it questions the advisability of their inclusion in the properties otherwise recently turned over to German custodianship. MFA&A Section has advised that as bona fide museum property there would usually be no reason not to turn over the flags, but recognize that their militaristic significance presents a special problem . . . Destruction, in view of the highly undesirable reactions such a course would inevitably provoke, has never been considered.” He requested instructions for the proper disposition of the flags. [17]

Several weeks later OMGH received from the OMGUS Property Division the instructions it requested. The Property Division instructed OMGH to transfer the flags to the baileeship of the Minister President of Hesse, in a similar manner to the previous transfer of other German museum properties from the Wiesbaden Collecting Point.[18]

On January 26, 1949, over 360 flags, all being identified as having come from the former Zeughaus in Berlin, and then in the Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point were turned over to the custodianship of the Hessian Minister President. [19] What he did with them is another story.

Postscript:  It should be obvious from the sources cited below, piecing together the story of the disposition of cultural property in Germany after World War II involves reviewing many series of records within various Record Groups. As more records are digitized and placed online, the task becomes much easier. But daunting nonetheless.

Footnotes:


[1] Report, Walker Hancock, MFA&A Special Officer, Hqs, First United States Army, Chance Find of Mine Depository at Bernterode-Special Report, May 12, 1945, Annexure I to Memorandum, Col. Leslie W. Jefferson, Chief, RD&R Branch, G-5 Division, HQs USFET to Assistant Chief of Staff, G-5, Subject: Report on Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives for Months of May and June 1945, July 1945, File: ETO-Monthly Reports for May and June [AMG-159], MFA&A Field Reports, 1943-1946, Records of the American Commission for the Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monuments in War Areas (The Roberts Commission), RG 239,  (Roll 72 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1944); Report, Lt. George L. Stout, USNR, HQs, 12th Army Group, Visit of MFA&A Officer to Headquarters and Area of First US Army, n.d., [ca. May 27, 1945], inclosure to Memorandum, Capt. L. Sokolower, Assistant Adjutant General, Hqs 12th Army Group to Supreme Commander, SHAEF (Main), Subject: Monthly Report on Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives, July 10, 1945, ibid.; Walter Hancock, “Experiences of a Monuments Officer in Germany,” College Art Journal (vol. V. No. 4, May 1946), pp. 294-295, 296-297.

[2] Report, Walker Hancock, MFA&A Special Officer, Hqs, First United States Army, Chance Find of Mine Depository at Bernterode-Special Report, May 12, 1945, Annexure I to Memorandum, Col. Leslie W. Jefferson, Chief, RD&R Branch, G-5 Division, HQs USFET to Assistant Chief of Staff, G-5, Subject: Report on Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives for Months of May and June 1945, July 1945, File: ETO-Monthly Reports for May and June [AMG-159], MFA&A Field Reports, 1943-1946, Records of the American Commission for the Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monuments in War Areas (The Roberts Commission), RG 239 (Roll 72 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1944); Report, Lt. George L. Stout, USNR, HQs, 12th Army Group, Visit of MFA&A Officer to Headquarters and Area of First US Army, n.d., [ca. May 27, 1945], inclosure to Memorandum, Capt. L. Sokolower, Assistant Adjutant General, Hqs 12th Army Group to Supreme Commander, SHAEF (Main), Subject: Monthly Report on Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives, July 10, 1945, ibid.; Memorandum, Lt. Col. Thomas A. Brown, Military Government Officer, Commanding, Detachment G-39, Co. C, 2nd Military Government Regiment, HQ Military Government Landreis-Stadtkreis Marburg to Commanding General, Seventh United States Army, Attn: Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Officer, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-5 Section, Subject: Disposition of Contents of Mine Repository, August 30, 1945, File: AG 007 Fine Arts Archives and Museums, Cultural Objects, 1945-1946, General Correspondence and Other Records (“Decimal File”), 1945-49, The Office of the Adjutant General, Records of the Executive Office, Box 9, Records of the Office of Military Government (U.S.) OMGUS, Records of United States Occupation Headquarters, World War II, RG 260 (hereafter cited as OMGUS, RG 260); Report, Brig. Gen. C. E. Ryan, Chief, G-5 Section; Col. Walker R. Goodrich, G-5 Section; Capt. Everett P. Lesley, Jr., G-5 Section, Civil Affairs and Military Government Activities in Connection with Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives, prepared for the General Board, United States Forces, European, Theater, n.d. [ca. December 1945], pp. 27-28, File: [OMGUS Economics Division APO 742], General Records, 1938-1948, Records of Central Collecting Points (“Ardelia Hall Collection”) OMGUS Headquarters Relating to the Central Collecting Points, Property Division, ibid. (Roll 17 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1941); Memorandum, Herbert S. Leonard, MFA&A Specialist Officer, MFA&A Section, Restitution Branch, Economics Division to Chief, MFA&A Section, Restitution Branch, Economics Division, OMGUS, Subject: Four Caskets at Marburg Central Collecting Point, May 10, 1946, File 7b [Miscellaneous MFA&A Reports] 1946 [Folder 1 of 2], ibid. (Roll 12 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1941); Memorandum, Capt. Robert Wallach, Assistant Executive Office, Office of Military Government for Greater Hesse to OMGUS, Attn: MFA&A Section, Restitution Branch, Economics Division, Subject: Monthly Consolidated Field Report, September 7, 1946, File: Monthly Report: Office of Military Government for Hesse, August 1946, Activity Reports, 1945-1951, Records of the Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point, ibid. (Roll 52 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1947); Evacuations already undertaken, Appendix B to Memorandum, Col. L. W. Jefferson, Director, Reparations, Deliveries and Restitution Division, USGCC to Deputy Military Governor, HQs, USGCC, Subject: Bi-weekly Report, July 7, 1945, File: 312.1 Miscellaneous Correspondence, RD&R Division USGCC 1945, General Correspondence (Central Files), 1944-1949, Records of the Economic Division, ibid.; Walter Hancock, “Experiences of a Monuments Officer in Germany,” College Art Journal (vol. V. No. 4, May 1946), pp. 297-300.

[3] Memorandum, Lt. Col. Thomas A. Brown, Military Government Officer, Commanding, Headquarters, Military Government  Landkreis-Stadtkreis Marburg, Detachment G-39, Co. C, 2nd Military Government Regiment to Commanding General, Seventh United States Army, Attn: Assistant Chief of Staff, G-5 Section, Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Officer, Subject: Disposition of Contents of Mine Repository, August 30, 1945, File: 000.4 Historical 5/45-12/45, (UD 376), Classified General Correspondence, 1945, Administration Branch, Adjutant General Section, Records of Headquarters, European Theater of Operations, United States Army (World War II), RG 498; Captain Hancock, Daily Journal [Marburg Central Collecting Point] 7 August-8 August [1945], Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives, File: MFA&A Marburg Central Collecting Point Daily Journal June 1945-Dec 1945, General Records of the Marburg Central Collecting Point, 1945-1946, Central Collecting Points (Ardelia Hall Collection), Property Division, OMGUS, RG 260 (Roll 1 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1948).

[4] Memorandum, Lt. Col. Thomas A. Brown, Military Government Officer, Commanding, Headquarters, Military Government  Landkreis-Stadtkreis Marburg, Detachment G-39, Co. C, 2nd Military Government Regiment to Commanding General, Seventh United States Army, Attn: Assistant Chief of Staff, G-5 Section, Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Officer, Subject: Disposition of Contents of Mine Repository, August 30, 1945, File: 000.4 Historical 5/45-12/45, (UD 376), Classified General Correspondence, 1945, Administration Branch, Adjutant General Section, Records of Headquarters, European Theater of Operations, United States Army (World War II), RG 498; 2nd Indorsement, Capt. Paul W. Priebe, Administrative Office, Headquarters, Military Government, Land Hessen-Nassau, Detachment E-2, Co. C, 2nd Military Government Regiment to Commanding General, Seventh U.S. Army, Western Military District, September 15, 1945, ibid.; 3rd Indorsement, Capt. Frank N. Spacek, Assistant Adjutant General, Headquarters, Seventh Army/Western Military District to Commanding General, US Forces, European Theater (Main), Attn: G-5, MFA&A, September 27, 1945, ibid.; 4th Indorsement, Capt. W. L. Steck, Assistant Adjutant General, Headquarters, U.S. Forces, European Theater (Main) to Commanding General, Office of Military Government for Germany (U.S.), October 18, 1945, ibid.

[5] Memorandum, 2nd Lt. Sheldon W. Keck, MFA&A Specialist Officer, Detachment G-39, Co. C, 2nd Military Government Regiment, HQs, Military Government Landkreis-Stadtkreis Marburg to Commanding General, U.S. Seventh Army, Attn: Office of Military Government Western District (Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Officer), Subject: Status of Collecting Point Report, November 3, 1945, File: October 1945 (Greater Hesse) Monthly Report on Monuments Fine Arts and Archives Western Military District-Seventh United States Army, Activity Reports, 1945, Property Division, Records of Central Collecting Points (“Ardelia Hall Collection”) OMGUS Headquarters Relating to the Central Collecting Points, OMGUS, RG 260 (Roll 32 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1941); Lieutenant Keck, Daily Journal [Marburg Central Collecting Point] 20 October-22 October 1945, 25 October-26 October 1945 and 31 October-1 November  1945, Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives, File: MFA&A Marburg Central Collecting Point Daily Journal June 1945-Dec 1945, General Records of the Marburg Central Collecting Point, 1945-1946, Central Collecting Points (Ardelia Hall Collection), Property Division, ibid., (Roll 1 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1948).

[6] 5th Indorsement, Capt. Morris A. Galatzan, Assistant Adjutant General, Office of Military Government for Germany (U.S.) to Commanding General, United States Forces, European Theater (Main), November 7, File: 000.4 Historical 5/45-12/45, (UD 376), Classified General Correspondence, 1945, Administration Branch, Adjutant General Section, Records of Headquarters, European Theater of Operations, United States Army (World War II), RG 498.

[7] OMGUS Staff Cable Control, Incoming Message, Ref No. SC-5481, USFET Main signed McNarney to OMG Western District for MFA&A, December 8, 1945, File: Flags, Records relating to monuments, museums, libraries, archives, and fine arts of the Cultural Affairs Branch, OMGUS, 1946–1949, OMGUS, RG 260 (Roll 4 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1921); Lt. Keck, Daily Journal [Marburg Central Collecting Point] 0800 12 December to 0800 13 December 1945 and 0800 14 December to 0800 15 December 1945, Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives, File: MFA&A Marburg Central Collecting Point Daily Journal June 1945-Dec 1945, General Records of the Marburg Central Collecting Point, 1945-1946, Central Collecting Points (Ardelia Hall Collection), Property Division, OMGUS, RG 260 (Roll 1 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1948).

[8] Memorandum, John H. Allen, Col., Chief, Restitution Branch, Economics Division, OMGUS to Lt. Gen. Clay, Subject: Captured Enemy Standards, December 13, 1945, File: Flags, Records relating to monuments, museums, libraries, archives, and fine arts of the Cultural Affairs Branch, OMGUS, 1946–1949, OMGUS, RG 260 (Roll 4 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1921); Note, LDC, Office of the Deputy Military Governor to Colonel Allen, December 15, 1945, ibid.

[9] Lt. Keck, Daily Journal [Marburg Central Collecting Point] 0800 17 December to 0800 18 December 1945, Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives, File: MFA&A Marburg Central Collecting Point Daily Journal June 1945-Dec 1945, General Records of the Marburg Central Collecting Point, 1945-1946, Central Collecting Points (Ardelia Hall Collection), Property Division, OMGUS, RG 260 (Roll 1 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1948); Memorandum, Col. John H. Allen, Chief, Restitution Branch, Economics Division, OMGUS to Chief of Staff, OMGUS, Subject: German War Banners, December 18, 1945, File: 311.55 Classified Files of Economics Division October 1945-December 1945, General Correspondence (Central Files), 1944-1949, Records of the Economic Division, OMGUS, RG 260; Memorandum, Brig. Gen. Bryan L. Milburn, Chief of Staff, OMGUS to Economic Division, Subject: German War Banners, December 20, 1945, File: Flags, Records relating to monuments, museums, libraries, archives, and fine arts of the Cultural Affairs Branch, OMGUS, 1946–1949, OMGUS, RG 260 (Roll 4 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1921).

[10] Lt. Keck, Daily Journal [Marburg Central Collecting Point] 0800 21 December to 0800 27 December 1945, 0800 27 December to 0800 28 December 1945, 0800 2 January to 0800 3 January 1946, 0800 3 January to 0800 4 January 1946, 0800 4 January to 0800 7 January 1946, Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives, File: MFA&A Marburg Central Collecting Point Daily June 1945-Dec 1945, General Records of the Marburg Central Collecting Point, 1945-1946, Central Collecting Points (Ardelia Hall Collection), Property Division, OMGUS, RG 260 (Roll 1 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1948); Memorandum, Maj. Lewis S. Williams, Military Government Office, Commanding, Office of Military Government for Landkreis-Stadtkreis Marburg to Director, OMGUS, Attn: MFA[&A] Section, Subject: German Military Flags in Staatsarchiv, Marburg, January 4, 1946, File: Marburg CCP, ibid.; Memorandum, H. D. M. Grier, Capt., Acting Chief, MFA&A Section, Restitution Branch, Economics Division, OMGUS to Chief, Restitution Branch, Economics Division, OMGUS, Subject: German Standards, December 22, 1945, File: Flags, Records relating to monuments, museums, libraries, archives, and fine arts of the Cultural Affairs Branch, OMGUS, 1946–1949, OMGUS, RG 260 (Roll 4 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1921).

[11] 1st Indorsement, Robert Wallach, Capt., Administrative Officer, Office of Military Government for Greater Hesse to Director, Office of Military Government for Germany (U.S.), Attn: MFA&A Section, Restitution Branch, Economics Division, January 24, 1946, File: Flags, Records relating to monuments, museums, libraries, archives, and fine arts of the Cultural Affairs Branch, OMGUS, 1946–1949, OMGUS, RG 260 (Roll 4 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1921).

[12] Pfc. Bilodeau, Daily Journal [Marburg Central Collecting Point] 8 February, 1946 to 9 February 1946, Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives, File: MFA&A Marburg Central Collecting Point Daily Journal Jan 1946-Aug 1946, General Records of the Marburg Central Collecting Point, 1945-1946, Central Collecting Points (Ardelia Hall Collection), Property Division, OMGUS, RG 260 (Roll 1 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1948); Memorandum, Capt. Patrick J. Kelleher, MFA&A Specialist Officer, HQs 2nd Military Government (SEP) to Historical and Reports Officer, Subject: Weekly Summary Report of MFA&A Section for 16-23 February 1946, February 27, 1946, File: Reports: Weekly Summary Reports, May 1945-May 1947, General Records, 1945-1952, Records of the Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point, OMGUS, RG 260 (Roll 15 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1947); Report, 1st Lt. Theodore A. Heinrich, Land MFA&A Specialist Officer, Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Section, 9 October 1945-June 1946, File: Reports Annual Report, October 1945-June 1946, ibid.; Memorandum, Capt. Robert Wallach, Assistant Executive Office, Office of Military Government for Greater Hesse to OMGUS, Attn: MFA&A Section, Restitution Branch, Economics Division, Subject: Monthly Consolidated Field Report, September 7, 1946, File: Monthly Report: Office of Military Government for Hesse, August 1946, Activity Reports, 1945-1951, ibid. (Roll 52 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1947); Memorandum, Capt. Robert Wallach, Assistant Executive Officer, OMG for Greater Hesse to Director, OMG for Germany (US), Attn: MFA&A Section, Restitution Branch, Economics Division, Subject: Request for Disposition of Caskets, March 21, 1946, File: K Deposits (Collecting Points Repositories Collections [2 of 2], General Records 1938-1948, Property Division, Records of Central Collecting Points (“Ardelia Hall Collection”) OMGUS Headquarters Relating to the Central Collecting Points, ibid. (Roll 3 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1941); Memorandum, Herbert S. Leonard, MFA&A Specialist Officer, MFA&A Section, Restitution Branch, Economics Division to Chief, MFA&A Section, Restitution Branch, Economics Division, OMGUS, Subject: Four Caskets at Marburg Central Collecting Point, May 10, 1946, File 7b [Miscellaneous MFA&A Reports] 1946 [Folder 1 of 2], ibid. (Roll 12 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1941); Memorandum, Francis W. Bilodeau, Director, Central Collecting Point, Office of MG for Landkreis-Stadtkreis Marburg to Director, OMG for Greater Hesse, Attn: Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Officer, Subject: Status of Collecting Point Report, March 3, 1946, File: ETO-Marburg Central Collecting Point Reports, 3 May 1946 and 3 March 1946 [AMG-382], MFA&A Field Reports, 1943-1946, Records of the American Commission for the Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monuments in War Areas (The Roberts Commission), RG 239 (Roll 80 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1944); Memorandum, Capt. Gottlieb L. Sch[l?][u?]ker, Executive Officer, OMG for Regierungsbezirk Kassel, to Commanding Officer, Detachment E-5, 2nd Military Government Battalion (Sep), Subject: Monthly MFA&A Report, February 1946, March 4, 1946, File: ETO-Wiesbaden Reports: Status of Collecting Point and Consolidated Field Reports for March [1946] [1 of 2] [AMG-385], ibid.

[13] [OMGUS] Carrier Sheet, Brig. Gen. W. H. Draper, Jr., Director, Economics Division, OMGUS to Chief of Staff, OMGUS, Subject: German War banners, February 25, 1946, File: 007 – 1 Fine Arts and Cultural Objects Folder #1, Jan 1946-April 1946, General Correspondence (Central Files), 1944-1949, Records of the Economic Division, OMGUS, RG 260.

[14] OMGUS Staff Cable Control, Outgoing Message, Ref No. CC-23832, OMGUS signed Clay to Superintendent US Military Academy West Point New York, March 2, 1946, File: Flags, Records relating to monuments, museums, libraries, archives, and fine arts of the Cultural Affairs Branch, OMGUS, 1946–1949, OMGUS, RG 260 (Roll 4 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1921); OMGUS Staff Cable Control, Incoming Message, Ref No. 0621552, USMA from Superintendent signed Maxwell D. Taylor to OMGUS Economics Division, March 7, 1946, ibid.

[15] Memorandum, Capt. Robert Wallach, Assistant Executive Officer, OMG for Greater Hesse to Director, OMGUS, Attn: MFA&A Section, Restitution Branch, Economics Division, Subject: Regimental Standards in the Marburg Central Collecting Point, March 25, 1946, File: 007 – 2 Fine Arts and Cultural Objects Folder #2,1 Apr-30 June 46, General Correspondence (Central Files), 1944-1949, Records of the Economic Division, OMGUS, RG 260; 1st Indorsement, Maj. L. B. La Farge, Chief, MFA&A Section, Restitution Branch, Economic Division, OMGUS to Economic Branch, OMG for Greater Hesse, Attn: MFA&A Section, April 9, 1946, ibid.

[16] Memorandum, Capt. Edith A. Standen, MFA&A Section, Officer in Charge of Central Collecting Point, OMG for Greater Hesse to Director, OMG for Greater Hesse, Attn: MFA&A Section, Subject: Status of Collecting Point Report, June 8, 1946, File: Monthly Report: Office of Military Government for Hesse, May 1946 [1 of 2], Activity Reports, 1945-1951, Records of the Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point, OMGUS, RG 260 (Roll 51 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1947); Mr. Bilodeau, Director, Daily Journal [Marburg Central Collecting Point] 0800 29 May to 0800 30 May 1946, Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives, File: MFA&A Marburg Central Collecting Point Daily Journal Jan 1946-Aug 1946, General Records of the Marburg Central Collecting Point, 1945-1946, Central Collecting Points (Ardelia Hall Collection), Property Division, ibid. (Roll 1 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1948).

[17] Memorandum, Francis E. Sheehan, Acting Director, Office of Military Government for Hesse to Commanding General, Office of Military Government for Germany (U.S.), Subject: Disposition of German Materials Held in the Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point, October 8, 1948, 1949, File: Flags, Records relating to monuments, museums, libraries, archives, and fine arts of the Cultural Affairs Branch, OMGUS, 1946–1949, OMGUS, RG 260 (Roll 4 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1921).

[18] Orran R. McJunkin, Chief, Reparations and Restitution Branch, for the Division Director, Property Division, Office of Military Government for Germany (U.S.) to Director, Office of Military Government for Hesse, October 25, 1948, 1st Indorsement to Memorandum, Francis E. Sheehan, Acting Director, Office of Military Government for Hesse to Commanding General, office of Military Government for Germany (U.S.), Subject: Disposition of German Materials Held in the Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point, October 8, 1948, 1949, File: Flags, Records relating to monuments, museums, libraries, archives, and fine arts of the Cultural Affairs Branch, OMGUS, 1946–1949, OMGUS, RG 260 (Roll 4 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1921).

[19] Memorandum, Theodore A. Heinrich, Chief, MFA&A Branch, OMGH and Director, Central Collecting Point to Director, OMG for Hesse, Attn: MFA&A Branch, Subject: Status of Collecting Point Report for January 1949, February 4, 1949, File: Monthly Report: Office of Military Government for Hesse, January-April 1949, Activity Reports, 1945-1951, Records of the Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point, OMGUS, RG 260 (Roll 52 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1947).

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